Glossary of terms used on this site

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Term Definition
C++

C++ is a statically typed, free-form, compiled, general-purpose programming language.

CGI

A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the “CGI program”) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.

Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the data into a database query.

You can often see that a CGI program is being used by seeing “cgi-bin” in a URL, but not always.

cgi-bin

The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored. The “bin” part of “cgi-bin” is a shorthand version of “binary”, because once upon a time, most programs were referred to as “binaries”. In real life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere on the same machine.

Client

A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client.

Cookie

The most common meaning of “Cookie” on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server.

Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser’s settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time.

Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online “shopping cart” information, user preferences, etc.

When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user’s requests.

Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their “expire time” has not been reached.

Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.

CSS

CSS, short for Cascading Style Sheets, is a language used to control the presentation (including colors, layout, and fonts) of HTML and XHTML documents.

CSS3

A style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL.

CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts.

Cyberspace

Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.

Directional Light

In Maya, is used to simulate sun rays. It emits parallel light rays from far away from a chosen point in space.

Dot Gain

Many variables - from ink to paper surface and press used - affect the size of halftone dots. A certain amount of dot gain, or increase in halftone dot size, occurs naturally when wet ink spreads as it's absorbed by the paper. If too much dot gain occurs, images and colors print darker than specified.

Dot gain is one of the characteristics taken into account when color-management systems are applied.

DPI

An abbreviation for dots per inch. Refers to th resolution at whic a device, such as a monitor or printer, can display text and graphics.

Drop Shadow

a visual effect used in web design to create the illusion of a shadow behind an object. The object appears to be raised above other objects behind it, as if the object were floating on the page. Drop shadows are a technique used in user interface to help objects still out and be more visible to the user. When done well, a drop shadow can help an object appear 3D, while increasing the beauty of the design.

E-Mail

Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses.

Eclipse

Eclipse is an open source integrated development environment (IDE) with a very large user base and ecosystem. It is primarily used for Java development, but can be used for any programming language.

Ethernet

A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

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